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No other single structure is so doubly protected, so centrally placed, so well-hidden

Harvey Williams Cushing

The pituitary gland (lat. Hypophysis) is the main endocrine gland located in the Turkish saddle and involved in the production of hormones that control the function of the peripheral endocrine glands (thyroid gland; adrenal glands; reproductive, mammary glands, etc.).
The activity of the endocrine system is regulated by the hypothalamus-pituitary gland-peripheral endocrine glands complex, which are in a close functional interrelation.

The hypothalamus (lat. Hypothalamus) is the highest vegetative center that regulates metabolism, temperature balance, activity of the digestive, cardiovascular, urinary, respiratory and endocrine systems.

Pituitary gland disorders are conditions impairing the control and management of peripheral endocrine glands, and the hypothalamus-pituitary gland axis.
One of the life-threatening conditions in the abnormal pituitary gland is hemorrhage into the tumor (apoplexy).
— pituitary adenoma is presented in the figure:

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