Diabetes insipidus

Central diabetes insipidus is a syndrome manifested by severe thirst and the release of large amounts of non-concentrated urine associated with damage to the neurohypophysis or the group of nuclei of the hypothalamus.
Neurogenic diabetes insipidus causes disorders of the synthesis, secretion or transport of arginine-vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone; ADH), which normally prevents the excretion of water and increases the concentration of urine. Lack of ADH leads to polyuria and dehydration.
Secretion of vasopressin is subject to circadian rhythms, at night the concentration of ADH is maximum, and during the day the level is reduced to a minimum.

Symptoms of diabetes insipidus

The main symptoms of diabetes insipidus are:
• Polydipsia is a symptom characterized by unnaturally strong, unquenchable thirst. It decreases or disappears only with water intakes far exceeding the physiological levels;
• Polyuria – increased urine formation (more than 3* liters per day);
• Decrease in the specific gravity of urine (less than 1010* in adults);
• Hypernatremia (more than 155* mmol/l);
• Skin dryness;
• Hypohidrosis;
The imbalance of fluid received in and excreted from the body can lead to the excitation, impairment of consciousness, hyperthermia, etc.
Differential diagnosis:
• Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus;
• Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus – primary psychogenic polydipsia;
• Gestagenic diabetes insipidus at pregnancy;

Treatment of central diabetes insipidus

The treatment of neurogenic diabetes insipidus is the introduction of synthetic analogues of antidiuretic hormone, which is available in different dosage forms (tablets, drops, intranasal spray, parenteral drugs).


*Приблизительное значение